Macht und Pflege

Vor ein paar Wochen erzählte ein Rettungsassistent auf Twitter, dass er während seiner Einsätze Menschen mit Behinderungen gerne mal duzt, woraufhin er sich deutlicher Kritik ausgesetzt sah. Er und einige andere rechtfertigten dies damit, dass er in der Regel nicht die Zeit hat, nach dem Nachnamen dieser Patienten zu fragen geschweige denn zu fragen, ob Duzen und Nennen beim Vornamen für diese überhaupt in Ordnung ist.

In einer Facebook-Gruppe löste kürzlich eine Pflegerin eine Diskussion über das „Auskotzen über nervige Patient*innen“ aus, als sie sich in einem Beitrag über eine adipöse Patientin mit Multipler Sklerose und entsprechend hohem Unterstützungsbedarf ausließ. Nicht wenige rechtfertigten dies mit „Psychohygiene“, schließlich soll man Frust nicht in sich hineinfressen.

Zwei Tage später wurde ein TV-Beitrag von „Team Wallraff“ gesendet, in der sich eine Undercover-Reporterin in Behindertenwerkstätten begab. Für großes Entsetzen sorgte unter anderem das Verhalten eines Betreuers, der einer behinderten Frau zum Spaß ihren Schal, der zum Auffangen ihres Speichelflusses diente, um die Augen band und sie teilweise wie einen Hund zu sich rief.

Drei unterschiedliche Fälle aus unterschiedlichen Settings, aber sie alle haben mit beruflichen Beziehungen zwischen Helfenden und Hilfsbedürftigen zu tun. Und ich halte es für unerlässlich, sich mit dieser Beziehung auseinanderzusetzen. Egal in welchem Bereich Menschen betreut oder behandelt werden.

Die Menschen, die wir betreuen sind nicht selten in hohem Maße auf uns angewiesen und können sich schlimmstenfalls nicht einmal dagegen wehren, wenn sie unser Verhalten ihnen gegenüber nicht wollen und wir ihre Grenzen überschreiten. Diese Beziehung hat ein Machtgefälle, in dem wir als Pflegende, Betreuende, Helfende etc. am längeren Hebel sitzen.

Und weil aus großer Macht große Verantwortung folgt, sind wir aufgefordert immer wieder unser Verhalten und auch unser eigenes Menschenbild zu reflektieren und hinterfragen. Wenn wir in unseren Berufen von Mitmenschlichkeit und Hilfsbereitschaft sprechen, müssen wir uns auch dieses Machtgefälles bewusst sein, damit wir nicht Gefahr laufen sie auszunutzen, weil die, denen wir helfen wollen, uns ihre Grenzen nicht aufzeigen können.

Das ist natürlich ein hoher Anspruch an uns. Und er beginnt nicht erst, wenn die Wehrlosigkeit von Menschen ausgenutzt wird. Er beginnt in unseren Köpfen, wenn wir die Patientin dafür verantwortlich machen, dass sie sich aufgrund eines hohen Unterstützungsbedarfes so häufig melden. Oder wenn wir glauben, dass es uns zusteht einen Erwachsenen mit Behinderung ungefragt zu duzen, weil die Betreuenden in seiner Heim- oder Arbeitsstätte das auch tun.

So kann es dann auch nicht sein, dass so ein Verhalten mit Zeitmangel, Überforderung oder „Psychohygiene“ gerechtfertigt wird. Jemanden zu fragen, ob ich ihn duzen kann, ist keine Zeitfrage, sondern eine Frage des Anstandes. Wenn ich mit einer Patientin überfordert bin, muss ich ganz klar die Grenze ziehen und mit meinem Team und nicht zuletzt auch mit der Patientin selbst, einen Weg finden, wie die Betreuung besser organisiert werden kann. Genau so reicht es nach einem Skandal wie bei „Team Wallraff“ auch nicht, sich auf die Schulter zu klopfen weil es „unseren“ Bewohner*innen gut geht und in unseren Betrieben alles tutti ist. Vielmehr sollten solche Nachrichten zum Anlass genommen werden, das eigene Verhalten und die Organisation des Betriebs auf den Prüfstand zu stellen.

Wenn wir professionell helfen wollen, kommen wir nicht umhin uns dieser Verantwortung und diesem Anspruch zu stellen.

Autor: Beatrice

Pflegewissenschaftlerin B.Sc. Gesundheits- und Krankenpflegerin seit 2008 im Intensivbereich

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