Equal Pay und die sogenannten Frauenberufe

Es ist wieder Equal Pay Day. Die Zeit im Jahr, in der wir Vorschläge diskutieren, wie die Lohnschieflage in Deutschland ausgeglichen werden kann.

Scherz! Natürlich werden wir wieder darüber diskutieren, OB es sich bei der allgemein bekannten Schieflage überhaupt um ein Problem handelt. Denn solange etwas gerechtfertigt werden kann, ist es keine Diskriminierung.

Ein Rechtfertigungsgrund für den Gender Pay Gap ist unter anderem die Berufswahl von Frauen. Denn würden Frauen sich nicht immer die falschen Berufe aussuchen, wäre die Lohngleichheit gar nicht so groß. Zu diesen Berufen gehören unter anderem soziale Berufe wie Pflegerin und Erzieherin. Und man wird nicht müde, in Equal-Pay-Diskussionen von genau diesen Berufen abzuraten. Und das trotz des derzeitigen Fachkräftemangels, der schon jetzt zu Problemen führt, einfach weil diese Berufe Tätigkeiten ausführen, die sowohl für den Einzelnen, als auch für die gesamte Gesellschaft notwendig und wichtig sind.

Und doch greifen in diesen Berufen die Angebot-Nachfrage-Mechanismen nicht. Was unter anderem auch damit zu tun hat, dass soziale Berufe  meist in irgendeiner Form aus öffentlicher Hand bzw. dem Sozialsystem bezahlt werden und diese Ressourcen nicht unendlich sind. Das ist aber nicht der einzige Grund, schließlich gelten nicht alle Berufe im öffentlichen Dienst als schlecht bezahlt.

Ein weiterer Faktor ist, dass man die Tätigkeiten der Pflegerinnen und Erzieherinnen fachlich nicht als besonders anspruchsvoll bewertet. Erzieherinnen spielen und singen mit den Kindern, Pflegerinnen wischen Ärsche ab und geben Essen ein. Und Menschen, die nicht in diesen Berufen arbeiten, können sich offenbar kaum vorstellen, dass hinter einfachen Handgriffen komplexe theoretische Konzepte stecken, die dann aber auf eine einzelne Person mit individuellen Anforderungen angewandt und zugeschnitten werden müssen. Stattdessen glaubt man, dass diese Tätigkeiten irgendwie in der Natur von Frauen liegt und gebt ihnen den Stellenwert von Wohltaten: Nett, aber nicht notwendig.

Und dann ist da noch die weit verbreitete Vorstellung, dass es den Menschen in diesen Berufen nicht ums Geld ginge. Gerade der Pflege wird ja gerne eine ordentliche Portion Altruismus unterstellt, deren größter Lohn ein Lächeln und ein Dankeschön ihrer Patient*innen ist. Fast schon anerkennend verweist man immer wieder darauf, dass die Pflegenden (momentan) nicht mehr Lohn, sondern vor allem bessere Arbeitsbedingungen fordern. Anders sah es im Sommer 2015 aus, als flächendeckend Kitas bestreikt wurden – da verbreitete sich, neben der Wut über die Bedrängnis der Eltern, sehr schnell die Auffassung, dass Erzieherinnen eigentlich sogar überbezahlt wären.

In den Diskussionen über Equal Pay und Gender Pay Gap wird gerne und viel darüber gesprochen wie man Frauen in MINT-Berufe und Führungspositionen bringt. Was einerseits natürlich gut und richtig ist, aber andererseits auch das Bild der seichteren anspruchslosen Sozialberufen zementiert. Es braucht daher genauso Diskussionen darüber, wie Berufe in denen sehr viele Frauen tätig sind (und das sind übrigens nicht nur Sozialberufe) besser bezahlt werden, anstatt die niedrigen Löhne dort als gegeben hinzunehmen. Und dies wäre übrigens nicht nur ein Selbstzweck, schließlich geht es auch darum wie wir unser Zusammenleben gestalten wollen und wieviel uns die Unterstützung und Förderung der Schwächeren in unserer Gesellschaft ist.

Autor: Beatrice

Pflegewissenschaftlerin B.Sc. Gesundheits- und Krankenpflegerin seit 2008 im Intensivbereich

315 Gedanken zu „Equal Pay und die sogenannten Frauenberufe“

  1. Mehr Männer in soziale Berufe wäre doch ein erfolgbringender Ansatz!?
    Try it, don’t like to hold an 2meter tall and high man while struggeling to get drugs again alone! Men wanted!!!

    1. Ich bin sehr dafür, mehr Männer für das Sozialwesen zu gewinnen. Aber doch nicht zum Zweck steigender Löhne. Denn die hätten diese Berufe auch dann verdient, wenn überhaupt keine Männer in diesen Berufen arbeiten würden. Mit dem Denken legitimiert man nur weiter den Umstand, dass bei steigendem Frauenanteil die Löhne einer Branche sinken. Das Problem würde also weiter bestehen und sich vielleicht nur in andere Bereiche verschieben.

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